We understand that figure does look a bit busy, however we believe that it is important to show the variability within each experimental group instead of only showing the mean that a heat map would show. This style of data presentation also allows error bars to be included. Thank you so much for your comments, we worked hard on these studies and are excited to share the novel data generated. We have gone through the manuscript in detail and have altered the verbiage in multiple places to try to ensure that our findings are not overstated. Overall, it is a descriptive study and the conclusions was not clearly supported by the data.
Unfortunately, this study faced problems beyond our control that prevented us from performing further experiments. In late 2019 the FDA was moving to ban specific flavors for pod devices, which include those for Mint and Mango. In anticipation of the new regulations, JUUL ultimately decided to discontinue JUUL Mint and Mango, and soon they were out of the market. The same process occurred with the other popular JUUL flavors such as Crème Brûlée and Cucumber. We have expanded the limitation section within the Discussion, and have pointed out that because these studies were conducted in female mice alone, the results may not represent effects in males. In this study, Alex Moshensky et al., investigated effects of chronic aerosol inhalation of flavored JUUL on inflammatory markers in several organs, including brain, lung, heart, and colon in a mouse model.
E-cigarettes containing nicotine have been listed as drug delivery devices in a number of countries, and the marketing of such products has been restricted or put on hold until safety and efficacy clinical trials are conclusive. Since they do not contain tobacco, television advertising in the US is not restricted. Some countries have regulated e-cigarettes as a medical product even though they have not approved them as a smoking cessation aid.
If used during pregnancy, nicotine may also cause premature births and low birthweight babies. The researchers also measured participants’ levels of cotinine, a breakdown product of nicotine, and determined that there were no significant differences between groups, an indication that e-cigarettes provided adequate replacement of nicotine. Pod-based e-cigarette devices, are fourth generation e-cigarettes that have become very popular in recent years, especially among young people. A more detailed and extensive set of analyses of pods, from various lots, would be necessary to more fully explore and characterize delivery and variability trends among these devices. The average liquid mass lost from pods before and after 50 aerosol puffs were 0.420 ± 0.040 g for myblu™, 0.259 ± 0.042 g for Vuse Alto® and 0.182 ± 0.023 g for JUUL® .
While the CDC has said that e-cigarettes expose users to fewer toxic chemicals than traditional cigarettes, they aren’t a risk-free alternative. Drugwatch.com has provided reliable, trusted information about medications, medical devices and general health since 2008. น้ำยาบุหรี่ไฟฟ้า ’ve also connected thousands of people injured by drugs and medical devices with top-ranked national law firms to take action against negligent corporations. People who have already switched completely from smoking to e-cigarettes should not switch back to smoking (either solely or along with e-cigarettes), which could expose them to potentially devastating health effects. E-cigarettes are not currently approved by the FDA as aids to help stop smoking.
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Researchers know more about the long-term effects of smoking than those of vaping. However, vaping products contain a great deal fewer harmful chemicals than cigarettes and can be an effective tool in quitting smoking altogether. In one study, the level of nicotine exposure in adolescents using JUUL or other brands of pod-based e-cigarettes was higher (245 ng/ml) than levels detected in adolescents who smoked regular cigarettes (155 ng/ml). Study findings also suggested that adolescents using pod-based e-cigarettes were more likely than other e-cigarette users to vape daily and to have more symptoms of nicotine dependence. Nicotine specifically has been previously found to decrease the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the colon (Van Dijk et al., 1995). Here, we saw an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the colon after 1 month of exposure, whereas these same signals were significantly decreased after 3 months of exposure when compared to the control group .
The dangers of vaping include lung and other organ damage, breathing problems, addiction and more. People tend to think of vaping as “safer” than smoking, but it’s not safe. A heating element for turning the liquid into breathable particles (aerosol, commonly called “vapor”). Listen to Laura Crotty Alexander talk about the impact of e-cigarettes on the brain, heart and other organs. We are an immunology, inflammation, and lung physiology lab, thus, behavioral studies are beyond the scope of both our lab and this manuscript.
Researchers have found that chemicals in e-cig aerosols can cause DNA damage and inflammation in lung cells cultured in labs. According to the CDC, e-cigarette use is unsafe for kids, teens and young adults. Because e-cigs contain nicotine, they may make young people more likely to smoke cigarettes in the future. More data on seizures and other neurological effects are needed and researchers urge medical personnel and the public to report any adverse experiences regarding e-cigarettes. In addition to these common side effects, epidemiological studies link e-cigarette use to overall mouth dryness, gum disease and irritation, according to a 2021 study published in Journal of Dental Research. It’s important to know the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that sometimes e-cigarette products are changed or modified and can have possibly harmful or illegal substances from unknown sources.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse states that around half of all smokers try to quit every year, while only 6% manage to do so. In some cases, yes, you can die from lung injuries vaping causes. For instance, 68 people died in an outbreak of vaping-related illness in 2019 and 2020. Among people who were hospitalized with severe EVALI, most were younger than 35 and used THC-containing vapes from informal sources . However, EVALI can happen in anyone using either nicotine or THC-containing vapes.
We found effects of JUUL aerosols on inflammatory responses in organs other than the lungs, demonstrating that the effects of e-cigarette exposure may be far-reaching across the body, as are those of cigarette smoke. While this study identified inflammation within brain regions, raising concern for both behavioral and psychological effects in human vapers, dedicated studies of the effects of e-cigarette use on behavior and mood states are needed. While the majority of changes in cytokine levels induced by e-cigarette exposure across organ systems were relatively small, the fact that multiple cytokines changed in concert indicates a significant shift in immunophenotyping across organs. We are most concerned about how these shifts in the inflammatory state will alter an e-cigarette users response to common clinical challenges. For example, Madison et al. exposed mice to e-cigarette aerosols with and without nicotine and found that both exposures increased susceptibility to acute lung injury in the setting of viral pneumonia (Madison et al., 2019).